Today, China's automotive industry is one of the unconditional locomotives of the world market. Dozens of car assembly plants of leading world manufacturers – from Volkswagen to Nissan, several brands of Chinese cars proper, which have loudly declared themselves over the past fifteen years. This whole huge complex with a design annual production of about eight million cars was not built at one time, and had its own foundation.
In 1931, by order of the ruler of Manchuria, Zhang Xueliang, the first Chinese car, the Ming Sheng truck, was created. The car was built in a single copy. The Japanese occupation that followed in 1937 and the civil war that began in 1945 delayed the appearance of its own automobile industry in China for many years.
In general, China throughout the second half of the twentieth century remained a very closed state for Western countries. Which traditionally was looking for its own path, while not shying away at the right moments to learn. And as a sponge to absorb knowledge and skills, both in the West and in the East. And if today it is called the unambiguous word "industrial espionage", then sixty years ago the transfer of technology to an ideologically close state was perceived as a very ordinary thing.
In the early 1950s, the Soviet Union was assigned the main role in the establishment of automobile production in communist China. The year 1956 became the birth year of the Chinese automobile industry, in July a truck Jiefang Ca10, which is a copy of the ZiS-150, came out of the gates of the FAW (First Automobile Works – the first automobile factory) plant built in Changchun with the participation of Soviet specialists. The car was manufactured on Soviet equipment, the plant employees were trained in the USSR, practicing at the ZIL plant.
Over 30 years of production, over 1.2 million Jiefang CA10 units have been produced.
The first-born of the Chinese automobile industry, a licensed copy of the ZIS-150, widely known in our area. The car has been produced since 1956 at the Changchun Automobile Plant No. 1. From Chinese, its name translates as "Liberation." According to the performance characteristics, this is without changes to the VMS, except for perhaps stampings on the sides of the hood and emblem. The chassis of the car lasted in production until 1987, and found its application both in the army and in the national economy of China.
Many add-ons, including tankers, fire trucks, army modifications, were created on the basis of the SA-10. And now these cars can be found on the roads of the province.
The car has become a cult for China. Monuments were erected to him, and it was he who was depicted on Chinese money, as a symbol of industrialization and the rise of industry.
The next truck mastered by the Chinese industry, which mainly found its application in the ranks of the People's Liberation Army of China (PLA), was a three-axle all-wheel drive
It’s familiar, isn't it? This is quite natural. After all, ZIL 157, which got on the conveyor in 1958, is hard not to recognize. The license for the then new model, which replaced the much less reliable and passable ZIS 151, was transferred to the Chinese comrades, which is called in the heat of heat. The Chinese, already in their second year as seasoned manufacturers, introduced their design look into the resulting car.
The front fenders became bent, of a slightly different shape, and they decided to make the radiator grill more elaborate by putting a similar part there with the SA-10 model. They decided not to touch the technical stuffing, which affected the qualities of the machine in the best way. They do not seek good from good.
A few years later, the “thirtieth” underwent some facelift. By the way, such a plumage of the cabin looks quite modern for itself. The Chinese are very capable students, it has been noticed many times. In the union, the prototype – ZIL-157 until the end of production in 1994 flaunted the external style of American trucks from the Second World War …
And if we talk about the first Chinese automobile plant, it has developed successfully, and in a few decades, the flagship of the Chinese automobile industry will begin importing its trucks into dozens of countries around the world under the now widely known name FAW.
The next manufacturer of Chinese trucks was the Nanjing factory in Jiangsu. The enterprise, unlike the Changchun Automobile Plant, which mainly worked with licensed products of the Moscow Automobile Plant, began to be based on the use of technologies of another enterprise, namely GAZ. So, in 1958, Nanking people released their first car:
And here everything is pretty recognizable. At least the GAZ-51A, even with a modified cab tail that resembles the American military car Dodge WC-32, new headlights and grille is recognized by knowledgeable people at a time. This 2.5-ton truck in China was equipped with both a native engine, and subsequently a 70-hp diesel engine.
The design was so successful for the Chinese that the car, improving during production, changing parts and interior elements to more modern ones, remained in production until the end of the eighties.
A licensed all-wheel drive truck GAZ-63, under the name Nanjing 230, was also produced in Nanjing. Here, Chinese designers also worked on the exterior of the car, as a result of this:
The car conquered the Chinese military with its reliability and very good cross. Even now, despite the fact that the PRC army is spending enormous amounts of money on the re-equipment and purchase of new modes of transport, the 230s are still in operation in some PLA units. Of course, not the first years of release, but the fact itself is noteworthy. Several modifications were also created on the chassis of this car – a dump truck, a tanker, and a complex of mountain MLRS.
Donfeng EQ 240
Since the army was the main customer of automobiles in the first twenty years of the Chinese automobile industry, the cars produced were primarily agreed with the military. And in the late 1960s, the PLA command needed a new triaxial all-wheel drive.
Which would replace and complement the classic Jiefang CA30 design already for the Chinese army. And this car, capable of transporting a cargo weighing 7.5 tons, or towing an artillery gun with a caliber of up to 122 mm, was built, debuting in 1973.
The car was called Donfeng eq 240, and was a URAL 375, a Soviet army novelty creatively redesigned by Chinese designers. The car was manufactured in China until the early 1990s, while being exported to the army of Peru and North Korea.
In addition to army vehicles, Chinese industry mastered the production of trucks for civilian purposes by the mid-1960s. So, in 1963, the JAW automobile plant (Jinian Automobile Works) launched the first hoodless car – Huanghe JN150 with a payload capacity of 8 tons. The truck was intended for long-distance transportation between cities, some of them were produced as a truck tractor, refrigerators were mounted on parts. Also on their base were fire trucks deployed in Beijing and other major metropolitan areas of China.
However, he was also a licensed copy of the well-known European car. The truth is not Soviet, but Czechoslovak – Skoda 706 RT. Czechoslovakia, which supplied CMEA countries with these cars, had a desire to enter new sales markets, and concluded a big contract with Chinese comrades both for the supply of cars from Europe and for the sale of a license for its production in China. Huanghe JN150 was produced until the early 1980s.
As for special vehicles for the construction and transportation of heavy goods, they were also produced in China. The thirty-two-dump Shanghai SH380 dump truck, designed both for working as special mining equipment and for transporting goods on the road, debuted in 1968. It was both in appearance and in terms of performance characteristics very similar to the BELAZ-540 heavy-duty dump truck that went into production in 1962 in Minsk. Produced in China until the end of the 1970s.
A further development of this topic was the model of the 60-ton Jiefang CA390 dump truck, presented to the public in 1973. It is also based on the Belazovsky development, model 548. True, the Chinese product was able to carry twelve tons more cargo.
Well, completing the theme of the origin and first steps of the Chinese auto industry, I can not get through yet another car.
Yes, you thought it right. UAZ-469? And yes, and, as it were, not at all.
In 1958, the BAW automobile plant (Beijing Automobile Works – Beijing Automobile Plant) was built, the products of which were focused on military needs. His most famous car, the Chinese commander jeep appeared in 1966, was presented at the parade in Beijing. On it, Mao Zedong examined the troops.
The situation between the two owners of nuclear weapons was not easy, in three years there will be an incident on Damansky Island, and the world will be on the verge of a nuclear conflict, which fortunately can be avoided. Therefore, there was no question of buying a license. The Chinese did not buy it. If you look closely at the car, you can guess the features of the 469 UAZ, model 460, which did not go into the series of "big brother".
Apparently, the engineers of the People's Republic of China somewhere got a set of documentation specifically for him, and created their army jeep six years earlier than the former "brothers forever." Since the UAZ-469 itself, due to various reasons, primarily the lack of an engine, was put on the conveyor only in 1972. The Chinese classmate was produced in its original form until 1992, when its improved version of the Beijin 220 replaced it.